Forum Implantologicum 15 (2019), No. 1 31. May 2019
Tooth extraction and unassisted socket healing are followed by a marked reduction in the alveolar contour in the orofacial dimension in particular. Therefore the correct timing of the implant placement is very important. According to the ITI Consensus Conference, the clinician can choose between four different treatment approaches to accommodate various clinical indications (type I-IV). This review article discusses late implant placement (type IV). In type IV interventions alveolar ridge preservation or socket grafting should be performed in order to counteract dimensional ridge alterations. With respect to surgical techniques to date, it is rather unclear which technique and which material is superior over another in terms of ridge preservation. Combinations of socket filling with various biomaterials and use of barrier membranes can be used in different indications. Additional measures to improve soft tissue conditions at the time of tooth extraction, such as socket sealing, might also be indicated in specific clinical scenarios. This clinically based analysis of the literature shows different cases to illustrate the potential applicability of alveolar ridge preservation techniques in various indications.
Keywords: Alveolar ridge preservation, xenograft, dimensional alteration, barrier membranes